Charles Peter Deyerle was born on November 8, 1820 in Roanoke County, Virginia, the son of Joseph Deyerle and Anne Crawford. Deyerle was a member of the first graduating class of the Virginia Military Institute, receiving his diploma in July 1842. He subsequently studied medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and received a commission in the United States Army. As an army surgeon, he served in the Mexican War and was afterwards assigned to Benicia Barracks in California. He died in California on October 30, 1853; in 1855 his body was returned to Salem, Virginia and is buried in East Hill Cemetery.